Buckbrush

Buckbrush © KKorbholz

Ceanothus cuneatus var. cuneatus
NATIVE

Description (Jepson, PlantID.net)

    • Eudicotyledon
      • Eudicots are a major lineage of flowering plants; see family for general characteristics
    • Buckthorn Family (Rhamnaceae)
    • Evergreen shrub
    • Leaves
      • Stiff and tough
      • Wedge-shaped to notched
      • Oppositely arranged (2 leaves at each junction with stem) and often clustered
      • Deeply veined
    • Flowers
      • Inflorescence (flower arrangement) of small, tight clusters
      • Flower parts are in fives
        • 5 broad white sepals (usually green, outer flower parts) create a star-like base
        • 5 slender, curled white petals extend like paddles beyond the sepals
        • 5 yellow-tipped stamens (male flower parts) are in line with the petals, which is an unusual flower pattern
      • Ovary is partly inferior (partly below the attachment of other flower parts)
    • Fruit a round, 3-part capsule (a dry, multi-chambered fruit that splits open at maturity) with horns
    • Height to ~9 ft.

    Distribution

      • Native to California
        • Grows in chaparral and as an understory plant in woodlands and forests
        • 50-54% of plants occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soils; see Serpentine affinity rankings (Calflora per Safford and Miller 2020)
        • See Calflora for statewide observations of this plant
      • Outside California, grows from Oregon to northern Baja California, Mexico
      • Grows at elevations to 7,000 ft.

      Uses (Picking or removing any natural material from public land is illegal)

        • Larval food source for several butterfly species, including California tortoiseshell (Nymphalis californica), echo blue (Celastrina landon echo), pale swallowtail (Papillo eurymedon), and hedgerow hairstreak (Satyrium saeplum)
        • Native people had several uses for buckbrush (Corelli 2004)
          • Mixed the ground roots and bark with water to create a mouthwash for sore throats or mouth sores
          • Mashed the flowers and fruits to produce a soap
          • Ate the seeds of some Ceanothus species
          • Used young shoots in basketry, including cradleboards, winnowing and burden baskets, and twined seed beaters (Anderson 2005)
            • Plants were actively managed by the burning and coppicing (repeated cutting to near ground level) to stimulate rapid growth of straight, flexible shoots
            • A single twined seed-beater required almost 200 plant shoots, a quantity that would require 400 unmanaged shrubs compared to 16 managed shrubs
        Flowers (L), Fruits (R), © DSchiel (L), KKorbholz (R)

        Name Derivation

          • Ceanothus (see-a-NO-thus) – from the Greek for “spiny plant,” referring to the thorn-like branch ends
          • cuneatus (kew-nee-AY-tus) – from the Latin for “wedge-shaped,” referring to the leaf shape (compare cuneiform, the early writing system using wedge-shaped characters)
          • Buckbrush – the common name for several species of North American shrubs that deer feed on, but in western North America, it is specifically associated with C. cuneatus

          Notes

            • Strongly aromatic flowers attract bees
            • Pollinated by insects
            • Component of California chaparral
              • Chaparral refers to evergreen shrub and small tree communities that grow on shallow, rocky, nutrient-poor soils in Mediterranean climates, with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
              • Chaparral shrubs, like buckbrush, are examples of sclerophyllous (“hard-leaf”) vegetation, with leaves that conserve water by being
                • Thick and leathery, with extra lignin (structural component that stiffens plant tissue) to prevent wilting
                • Waxy, with a thick cuticle that reduces transpiration
                • Densely organized, occurring at short distance along the stem, thus increasing local humidity
                • Usually small and oriented parallel or oblique to direct sunlight, reducing surface exposure
            • Important to the ecology of chaparral because nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules release nutrients into the surrounding soil when the roots die
            • Regenerate from dormant seeds following a fire or disturbance
            • An audible pop occurs when the mature fruit capsule bursts; although the majority of seeds fall near the parent shrub, they can be cast up to 35 ft. (League 2005)
            • Seeds can also be dispersed by insects: California harvester ants have been known to cache the seeds
            • The genus Ceanothus has two subgenera
              • The Cerastus subgenus, which includes buckbrush, has
                • Generally opposite leaves, usually smaller and thicker, with a single main vein
                • Flowers in compact clusters
              • The Ceanothus subgenus, which includes blue blossom and Jim brush, has
                • Generally alternate leaves, usually larger and thinner, with three major veins
                • Flowers in elongated clusters
            • Edgewood’s buckbrush is classified as a variety
              • Subspecies rank is used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas variety rank is appropriate for variants seen throughout the geographic range of the species; in practice, these two ranks are not distinct
            • California lilac is a common name given to all Ceanothus species because of the similarity of the shape (especially in the subgenus Ceanothus) and smell of the inflorescence (flower arrangement) to the cultivated lilac (Syringa species) of southeast Europe and eastern Asia
            Comparison of Leaves © DSchiel

            ID Tips

              • May be confused with chaparral pea (Pickeringia montana), seen on the upper Clarkia trail, when flowers are not present
                • Buckbrush leaves are opposite (2 leaves at each junction with stem) and simple (not divided into leaflets), and the branches do not end in thorns
                • Chaparral pea leaves are alternate (1 leaf at each junction with stem) and compound (divided into leaflets), usually with three leaflets, and the branches end in thorns

              At Edgewood

                • Found in chaparral
                  • See iNaturalist for observations of this plant
                    • Note observations are for Ceanothus cuneatus
                • Flowers February – August

                See General References

                Specific References

                  Anderson, M.K. 2005. Tending the Wild. University of California, Berkeley.

                    League, K.R. 2005. Ceanothus cuneatus. Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

                      Safford, H.D. and Miller, J.E.D. 2020. An Updated Database of Serpentine Endemism in the California Flora. [manuscript accepted by] Madrono, California Botanical Society, Northridge, California.

                        Shapiro, A.M. and Manolis, T.D. 2007. Field Guide to Butterflies of the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento Valley Regions, University of California Press, Berkeley – Los Angeles, California.