Yerba Santa

Yerba Santa © KKorbholz

California Yerba Santa
Eriodictyon californicum
NATIVE

Description (Jepson, PlantID.net)

    • Eudicotyledon
      • Eudicots are a major lineage of flowering plants; see family for general characteristics
    • Borage Family (Boraginaceae)
    • Evergreen shrub
    • Leaves
      • Alternate (1 leaf at each junction with stem) and simple (not divided into leaflets)
      • Narrow leathery leaves with toothed margins; up to 6 in. long
      • Young leaves sticky on upper surface
    • Flowers
      • Inflorescence (flower arrangement) is a panicle (a many-branching, loose flower cluster)
      • 5-lobed, funnel-shaped, white to purplish flowers/li>
      • Ovary superior (above the attachment of other flower parts)
    • Fruit is a capsule (a dry, multi-chambered fruit that splits open at maturity)
    • Height to ~9 ft.

    Distribution

      • Native to California
        • Grows on slopes and ridges in chaparral, woodlands, and forests
        • See Calflora for statewide observations of this plant
      • Outside California, grows in southern Oregon
      • Grows at elevation to 6,000 ft.

      Uses (Picking or removing any natural material from public land is illegal)

        • Butterflies such as the western tiger swallowtail (Papilio rutulus), pale swallowtail (P. eurymedon), California hairstreak (Satyrium californicum), and Edith’s checkerspot (Euphydryas editha) seek the flowers for nectar
        • Visited by bees
          • Pollen and nectar source for native bees
          • Non-native honey bee (Apis mellifera) makes a spicy amber honey from the nectar
        • Black-tailed deer forage on yerba santa when other food sources are scarce
        • Birds and small mammals eat the seed capsules
        • Native people and Spanish settlers considered yerba santa a valuable medicinal plant
          • A tea or smoke from the leaves was used as a decongestant for colds, asthma, chronic gastritis, and urethral irritation
          • Leaves and flowers were warmed and used as a poultice on aching or sore areas
          • Mashed leaves were often applied to cuts, wounds, abrasions, and fractures to keep swelling down, aid in mending, and relieve pain
          • Chewing on leaves helps relieve thirst

        Name Derivation

          • Eriodictyon (er-ee-oh-DIK-tee-yon) – from the Greek erion, “wool,” and diktuon, “net,” thus a woolly net, referring to the undersurface of some leaves
          • Yerba santa – from the Spanish for “holy” or “sacred herb”
          Flowers (L), Fruits (M), Leaves with Hetersporium Fungus (R) © DSchiel

          Notes

            • Leaves are slightly aromatic and bitter, making them unpalatable to most animals
            • Once plant is established, the roots send up many new shoots to form large colonies
            • Strongly adapted for fire
              • Leaves secrete a flammable resin
              • Rhizomes (horizontal underground stems), as well as seedbank, allow for quick resprouting
            • Leaves and young stems are often infected with a sooty fungus in the genus Hetersporium, which turns them black, but is not thought to harm the plant

            At Edgewood

              • Found in chaparral
              • Flowers April – July

              See General References

              Specific References

                Howard, J.L. 1992. Eriodictyon californicum. Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

                  Immel, D.L. 2006. Plant Guide: California Yerba Santa. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), National Plant Data Center.

                    Shapiro, A.M. and Manolis, T.D. 2007. Field Guide to Butterflies of the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento Valley Regions. University of California Press, Berkeley – Los Angeles, California.