Toyon

Toyon © DSchiel

Christmas Berry, California Holly
Heteromeles arbutifolia
NATIVE

Description (Jepson, PlantID.net)

    • Eudicotyledon
      • Eudicots are a major lineage of flowering plants; see family for general characteristics
    • Rose Family (Rosaceae)
    • Only species in its genus
    • Perennial shrub or small tree
    • Shiny, serrated leaves, alternating along stem
    • Flowers
      • Inflorescence (flower arrangement) is a domed panicle (a many-branching, loose flower cluster)
      • White, urn-shaped flowers
        • 5 separate petals attach to a floral cup (hypanthium)
      • Ovary inferior (below the attachment of other flower parts)
    • Fruit is a small orange to red “berry,” technically a pome (a fleshy fruit that does not split open, derived from a floral tube enclosing a compound ovary)
    • Height to ~30 ft.

    Distribution

      • Native to California
        • Grows in coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and mixed oak woodlands
        • See Calflora for statewide observations of this plant
      • Outside California, grows into Baja California, Mexico
      • Grows at elevations to 4,300 ft.

      Uses (Picking or removing any natural material from public land is illegal)

        • Many animals rely on the berries as a winter food source
          • Birds, including hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)
          • Mammals, including coyotes and bears
        • Dusky-footed woodrats are the only mammals that eat mature toyon leaves (Marionchild 2014)
          • Leaching rooms in their stick houses help break down toxins
          • Bacteria in their digestive tract help digest toxins
        • Native and Spanish people and ate the toasted or boiled fruit
        • Native people made an infusion from bark and leaves to treat infected wounds
        • CAUTION – Fruits contain a cyanide compound that in large amounts is toxic to humans
        Flowers (L), Fruits (M), Leaves (R) © DSchiel

        Name Derivation

          • Heteromeles (het-er-OH-mi-lees) – from the Greek hetero-, “different,” and the Latin malus, “apple,” suggesting a comparison to apples, which are also in the Rose family: the fruit of both are pomes
          • arbutifolia (ar-bew-ti-FO-lee-a) – from the genus Arbutus, in the Heath Family, probably related to the Latin arbuscular, “little tree” or “shrub,” and folio, “leaf,” as the leaves are similar to those of the Spanish madrone (Arbutus unedo)
          • Toyon – derived from an Ohlone word for the plant; toyon is one of the few California native plants that continue to be commonly known by a Native American name

          Notes

            • Hollywood was likely named for the abundance of this plant in the Hollywood hills (Keeler 2015); the evergreen boughs with their bright red fruits reminded settlers of holly, which accounts for the common names Christmas berry and California holly
            • In the 1920s, California passed a law prohibiting the collection of toyon branches on public land; toyon became the official native plant of Los Angeles in 2012
            • Toyon has several mechanisms for protecting its leaves and berries
              • Leaves
                • Leaves contain bitter tannins and toxic levels of cyanide; young leaves have the highest of these compounds (Dement and Mooney 1974)
                • Mature leaves are tough, waxy, and serrated
              • Berries
                • Immature berries have high levels of bitter tannins and cyanide, plus low levels of sugar
                • Mature berries have an inviting red color and higher sugar levels; cyanide moves from the flesh to the seeds
            • Fruit is sweet and spicy when ripe
            • One of the few native plants whose berries ripen in mid winter, providing food for birds (Marionchild 2014)
            • Host to the fungus-like microorganism Phytophthora ramorum, which causes Sudden Oak Death (SOD)
              • At Edgewood, the two species known to be highly susceptible to SOD are coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia) and Pacific madrone saplings (Arbutus menziesii)
              • For a complete list of known hosts and host associates see USDA Risk Analysis for Phytophthora ramorum, pp.6-9

            ID Tips

            California CoffeeberryToyonPacific MadroneCalifornia Bay
            Growth Habitshrubshrub / treetreetree
            Height≤ 15 ft.≤ 30 ft.≤ 130 ft.≤ 148 ft.
            Leaves
                Margin (Edge)smooth or finely toothedserratedsmoothsmooth
                Aromaticnononoyes
            California Coffeeberry (L), Toyon (LM), Pacific Madrone (RM), California Bay (R) © DSchiel

            At Edgewood

              • Found in chaparral and woodlands
              • Flowers June – July
              • Fruits in winter

              See General References

              Specific References

                Curran, K. List of Native Plants Used by Early Settlers of Southern California. EthnoHerbalist.

                  Dement, W.A. and Mooney, H.A. 1974. Seasonal Variation in the Production of Tannins and Cyanogenic Glucosides in the Chaparral Shrub, Heteromeles arbutifolia. Oecologia Vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 65-76.

                    Kaplan, A. and Hawkes, A. 2016, Dec. 22. Ask The Naturalist: How Important Are Red Toyon Berries To the Winter Food Chain? Bay Nature.

                      Keeler, K. 2015, Jan. 4. Plant story–Holly, holy and Hollywood, a Holly Postscript. A Wandering Botanist.

                        Marionchild, K. 2014. Secrets of the Oak Woodlands: Plants and Animals among California’s Oaks. Heyday, Berkeley, California.

                          Sullivan, R. and Eaton, J. 2007, Dec. 19. Toyon’s colorful berries mark Christmas and provide winter fodder. SFGate.