Purple Needle Grass

Purple Needle Grass © DSchiel

Stipa pulchra
NATIVE

Description (Jepson, PlantID.net)

    • Monocotyledon
      • Monocots are a major lineage of flowering plants; see family for general characteristics
    • Grass Family (Poaceae)
    • Perennial bunchgrass
    • Roots generally reach 2-6 ft. and can reach 16 ft. deep
    • Open, nodding inflorescence (flower arrangement) develops many needle-like seed heads
    • Wind pollinated
    • Fruit is a grain (a dry, one-seeded fruit with a fused seed coat)
      • Grain (seeds) have sharply-pointed tips and twice-bent awns (stiff, hair-like appendages)
    • Height ranges from 2-3 ft. tall
    • Life span can reach 100-200+ years (Rawlings 2006)

    Distribution

      • Native to California
        • Grows in grasslands, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and foothill woodlands in areas with clay and serpentine soils
        • See Calflora for statewide observations of this plant
      • Outside California, grows south to Baja California, Mexico
      • Grows at elevations to 5,600 ft.

      Uses (Picking or removing any natural material from public land is illegal)

        • Provides food for more than 330 animal species (Bill Text 2003-2004)
        • Seed is an important food source for wildlife, for example, quail (Heiple 2018)
        • One of several grass seeds used by Native people as a food source
        • Native people used grasses in many ways: lining cooking pits, stringing drying foods, and as flooring or bedding

        Name Derivation

          • Stipa (STY-pa) – from the Greek for “flax” or “fiber,” for the feathery flower clusters
          • pulchra (PUL-kra) – from the Latin for “beautiful” or “handsome”
          • Purple needle grass – young flower clusters are purple-tinged; the awns (stiff, hair-like appendages) are especially long and fine, like a needle trailing a thread

          Adaptations

            • Seed is adapted to promote dispersal and planting (Cunningham 2010)
              • Long, twice-bent awn (stiff, hair-like appendages) hooks onto fur or clothing
              • Pointed tip and rough, unidirectional hairs on the seed body help work it into fur, clothing, and soil
              • Awn twists when dry and straightens out when wet allowing the seeds to drill themselves into the ground, self-planting
            • Deep roots of native perennial bunchgrasses help plants survive drought, fire, and intermittent grazing
              • High-intensity, continuous grazing, especially in drought conditions, will kill them

            Notes

              • Wind pollinated – see Grass family to learn more
              • Most widespread of California’s native bunchgrasses, growing across the state in a variety of habitats and soils
                • Dominant grass species in California’s grasslands and foothills before European settlement
                • Designated State Grass of California in 2004
                  • Recognized as “a symbol of the heritage, splendor, and natural diversity found in the early days of California” (Bill Text 2003-2004)
              • About 80% of California’s native grasses, including purple needle grass, are perennials (Beidleman and Kozloff 2003)
              • Deep roots of native perennial bunch grasses provide advantages to the ecosystem
                • Draw water and nutrients to the surface where they can be used by other plants; in contrast, shallowly-rooted non-native annual grasses take resources from the soil surface (Heiple 2018)
                • Provide erosion control
                • Act as highly effective carbon sinks
                  • The rate of carbon sequestration increases with soil depth
                  • Even when these grasses die, the carbon remains in the soil, providing resilience to climate change
              • Some references classify needlegrasses in the genus Nassela

              ID Tips

                • May be confused with foothill needle grass (S. lepida)
                  • Purple needle grass
                    • Is taller, with a courser, more robust appearance
                    • Has awns (stiff, hair-like appendages) longer than your little finger ( ≤ 4 in.)
                    • Tends to grow in open grassland
                  • Foothill needle grass
                    • Is shorter, with a finer, more delicate appearance
                    • Has awns shorter than your little finger (≤ 2 in.)
                    • Tends to grow at the margins of woodlands and chaparral

                At Edgewood

                  • Widespread in grasslands, especially in serpentine soils
                  • Flowers April – June

                  See General References

                  Specific References

                    Beidleman, L.H. and Kozloff, E.N. 2003. Plants of the San Francisco Bay Region: Mendocino to Monterey. University of California, Berkeley.

                      Bill Text – SB-1226 State Grass. 2003-2004. California Legislative Information.

                        Cunninham, L. 2010. State of Change: Forgotten Landscapes of California. Heyday, Berkeley, California.

                          Heiple, P. 2018, Aug. 8. Personal communication.

                            Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources. 2019. Carbon Sequestration in Grasslands.

                              Rawlings, J. 2006, Apr. 4. Purple Needlegrass, Nassella pulchra, March-June, Native. Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford University: Some Native and Naturalized Grasses.

                                Steinberg, P.D. 2002. Nassella pulchra. Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

                                  Tilley, D., et. al. 2009. Plant Guide: Purple Needlegrass. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), National Plant Data Center.

                                    US Forest Service. Celebrating Flowers: Wind and Water Pollination. United States Department of Agriculture.

                                      Wilson, B. 2012. Stipa pulchra, Purple Stipa. Las Pilitas Native Plant Nursery.