California Blackberry

California Blackberry © SBernhard

Pacific Blackberry, Trailing Blackberry
Rubus ursinus
NATIVE

Description (Jepson, PlantID.net)

    • Eudicotyledon
      • Eudicots are a major lineage of flowering plants; see family for general characteristics
    • Rose Family (Rosaceae)
    • Winter-deciduous perennial vine or shrub
    • Leaves hairy; divided into three leaflets (leaf-like structures of compound leaf)
    • Stems with many small prickles
    • White to pale-pink flowers, with male and female flowers usually on separate plants (dioecious)
      • Female flowers have smaller petals (~ 0.25 in.) and a central cluster of many pistils
      • Male flowers have larger petals (~ 0.5 in.) and a central cluster of many stamens
      • Ovary superior (above the attachment of other flower parts)
    • Berry is actually a collection of dark purple fruits, each one a drupelet (a small fleshy fruit with a hard seed, e.g. raspberry segment)
    • Height to ~6 ft.

    Distribution

      • Native to California
        • Grows in scrublands, woodlands, along streams, and in open or disturbed areas
        • See Calflora for statewide observations of this plant
      • Outside California, grows from Canada south to Baja California, Mexico, and east to the Rocky Mountains
      • Grows at elevations to 4,900 ft.

      Uses (Picking or removing any natural material from public land is illegal)

        • Deer browse the stems and foliage
        • Many animals, including birds, depend on the fruit as a food source
        • Many animals use the dense thickets for nesting sites and protective cover, including bees
        • Larval food source for some butterflies, including western tiger swallowtail (Papilio rutulus), mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa), and gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus)
        • Native people had many uses for California blackberry
          • Berries were eaten fresh or dried, sometimes mixed with meat to form pemmican
          • Roots were made into a tea used to treat diarrhea
          • Leaves were also used to brew tea
          • Young shoots could be boiled and eaten
        Flower (L), Fruit (M), Prickles (R)
        © KKorbholz (L, R), DSchiel (M)

        Name Derivation

          • Rubus (ROO-bus) – from the Latin for “bramble” or “blackberry”
          • ursinus (ur-SINE-us) – from the Latin for “bear-like”

          Notes

            • Pollinated by native bees
            • California blackberry is sometimes considered a “weed” as it can form dense populations along streams and ditches, out-competing other vegetation

            ID Tips

              • May be confused with non-native Himalayan blackberry (R. armeniacus) or poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum)
                • California blackberry has 3 smaller leaflets, green on both sides, and a round stem with many small straight prickles (a more delicate looking plant!)
                • Himalayan blackberry has 3-5 large leaflets with white undersides and a 5-angled stem with stout, sharp, curved, widely-spaced prickles
                • Poison oak also has leaflets of three, but the leaves are not hairy
                • Mnemonic – “Leaves of three, let it be; If it’s shiny, watch your hinny; If it’s hairy, it’s a berry”
              Leaves of California Blackberry (L), Poison Oak (M), Himalayan Blackberry (R) © DSchiel

              At Edgewood

                • Found in moist areas and riparian woodlands
                • Flowers April – June
                • Fruits in summer

                See General References

                Specific References

                  Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California. 2019. Weed Gallery: Wild blackberries–UC. State-wide Integrated Pest Management Program.

                    Tirmenstein, D. 1989. Rubus ursinus. Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

                      Wilson, B. 2012. Rubus ursinus, Pacific Blackberry in the wild. Las Pilitas Native Plant Nursery.